Arabelle rafael

Arabelle Rafael Nicht nur ein Event, sondern ein unvergessliches Erlebnis

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Rafael Nadal commence sa saison en demi-finale du tournoi d'exhibition d' Abu Dhabi , tournoi non officiel. Il y affronte David Ferrer contre lequel il l'emporte en trois sets , 6 4 -7, Ce match est encourageant et rassurant pour la suite de la saison de l'Espagnol [ ].

Aux Jeux olympiques de Rio , il fait son retour et s'aligne en simple et en double. Il se qualifie pour les quarts de finale en battant Federico Delbonis , Andreas Seppi et Gilles Simon en deux manches.

Rafael Nadal commence sa saison au tournoi exhibition d' Abu Dhabi. En demi-finale, il affronte le Canadien Milos Raonic et remporte le match , , Pour son premier match officiel, il bat Alexandr Dolgopolov , Cette fois, c'est le Canadien qui l'emporte en trois sets , , Au bout d'un match marathon de plus de 4 heures de jeu, Nadal en sort vainqueur , , 6 5 -7, , [ ].

Lors de cette demi-finale, il affronte le Bulgare Grigor Dimitrov 15 e mondial. Il rencontre ensuite en quart de finale le Japonais Yoshihito Nishioka , et gagne en 2 sets 3 , Il l'emporte en surclassant le Suisse , , en 2 h 05 [ ].

En demi-finale, il domine le Russe Karen Khachanov 3 , pour se qualifier en finale. Le Majorquin domine ensuite facilement le Canadien Vasek Pospisil , , Il dispute son premier match contre le Sud-Africain Kevin Anderson en demi-finale, contre qui il perd en 3 sets , , Le Majorquin l'emporte facilement en 1 h 46 , , Le Serbe l'emporte donc en 3 petits sets , , et 2 h Il retrouve le Russe Karen Khachanov , qu'il bat en deux tie-breaks , et 2 h 16, mais contre qui il se blesse au genou droit.

Mais il s'incline de nouveau en demi-finale, vaincu en deux manches par un exceptionnel Dominic Thiem , [ ]. Il participe ensuite au Masters de Paris-Bercy.

En finale, il remporte le point du titre face au Canada en battant Denis Shapovalov , 7. En finale, il s'incline en simple contre Novak Djokovic , et l'Espagne finit par perdre contre la Serbie Il est un des meilleurs relanceurs du circuit [ ].

Le coup droit de Rafael Nadal est son meilleur coup [ ]. En , lors de la finale de Wimbledon, il ne monte que 28 fois au filet.

Les surfaces en dur sont plus agressives pour le corps. Il retourne la situation, efface la balle de match et remonte ses deux breaks de retard avant de remporter le match au tie-break.

Ainsi que de la Coupe Davis. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Menu de navigation Espaces de noms Article Discussion.

Pour les articles homonymes, voir Nadal et Parera. Nadal Parera est un nom espagnol. Poules 4 e du groupe B Forfait. Finale Roger Federer Poules. Poules 3 e du groupe B Finale.

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Deposition of Christ , , drawing from Roman sarcophagi. In , Raphael moved to Rome, where he resided for the rest of his life. Peter's Basilica , who came from just outside Urbino and was distantly related to Raphael.

Several other artists and their teams of assistants were already at work on different rooms, many painting over recently completed paintings commissioned by Julius's loathed predecessor, Alexander VI , whose contributions, and arms , Julius was determined to efface from the palace.

This first of the famous "Stanze" or " Raphael Rooms " to be painted, now known as the Stanza della Segnatura after its use in Vasari's time, was to make a stunning impact on Roman art, and remains generally regarded as his greatest masterpiece, containing The School of Athens , The Parnassus and the Disputa.

Raphael was then given further rooms to paint, displacing other artists including Perugino and Signorelli.

He completed a sequence of three rooms, each with paintings on each wall and often the ceilings too, increasingly leaving the work of painting from his detailed drawings to the large and skilled workshop team he had acquired, who added a fourth room, probably only including some elements designed by Raphael, after his early death in The death of Julius in did not interrupt the work at all, as he was succeeded by Raphael's last Pope, the Medici Pope Leo X , with whom Raphael formed an even closer relationship, and who continued to commission him.

Raphael was clearly influenced by Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling in the course of painting the room.

Vasari said Bramante let him in secretly. The first section was completed in and the reaction of other artists to the daunting force of Michelangelo was the dominating question in Italian art for the following few decades.

Raphael, who had already shown his gift for absorbing influences into his own personal style, rose to the challenge perhaps better than any other artist.

One of the first and clearest instances was the portrait in The School of Athens of Michelangelo himself, as Heraclitus , which seems to draw clearly from the Sybils and ignudi of the Sistine ceiling.

Other figures in that and later paintings in the room show the same influences, but as still cohesive with a development of Raphael's own style.

These very large and complex compositions have been regarded ever since as among the supreme works of the grand manner of the High Renaissance , and the "classic art" of the post-antique West.

They give a highly idealised depiction of the forms represented, and the compositions, though very carefully conceived in drawings , achieve "sprezzatura", a term invented by his friend Castiglione, who defined it as "a certain nonchalance which conceals all artistry and makes whatever one says or does seem uncontrived and effortless Stanza della Segnatura.

The Mass at Bolsena , , Stanza di Eliodoro. Deliverance of Saint Peter , , Stanza di Eliodoro. The Fire in the Borgo , , Stanza dell'incendio del Borgo, painted by the workshop to Raphael's design.

After Bramante's death in , Raphael was named architect of the new St Peter's. Most of his work there was altered or demolished after his death and the acceptance of Michelangelo's design, but a few drawings have survived.

It appears his designs would have made the church a good deal gloomier than the final design, with massive piers all the way down the nave, "like an alley" according to a critical posthumous analysis by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.

It would perhaps have resembled the temple in the background of The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple. He designed several other buildings, and for a short time was the most important architect in Rome, working for a small circle around the Papacy.

Julius had made changes to the street plan of Rome, creating several new thoroughfares, and he wanted them filled with splendid palaces.

The main designs for the Villa Farnesina were not by Raphael, but he did design, and decorate with mosaics, the Chigi Chapel for the same patron, Agostino Chigi , the Papal Treasurer.

Another building, for Pope Leo's doctor, the Palazzo Jacopo da Brescia , was moved in the s but survives; this was designed to complement a palace on the same street by Bramante, where Raphael himself lived for a time.

He produced a design from which the final construction plans were completed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Even incomplete, it was the most sophisticated villa design yet seen in Italy, and greatly influenced the later development of the genre; it appears to be the only modern building in Rome of which Palladio made a measured drawing.

Only some floor-plans remain for a large palace planned for himself on the new via Giulia in the rione of Regola , for which he was accumulating the land in his last years.

It was on an irregular island block near the river Tiber. It is preserved at the Library in Munich with handwritten margin notes by Raphael. The pope intended to continue to re-use ancient masonry in the building of St Peter's, also wanting to ensure that all ancient inscriptions were recorded, and sculpture preserved, before allowing the stones to be reused.

Peter's Square for 90, ducats. The Vatican projects took most of his time, although he painted several portraits, including those of his two main patrons, the popes Julius II and his successor Leo X , the former considered one of his finest.

Other portraits were of his own friends, like Castiglione, or the immediate Papal circle. Other rulers pressed for work, and King Francis I of France was sent two paintings as diplomatic gifts from the Pope.

He also designed some of the decoration for the Villa Madama, the work in both villas being executed by his workshop. One of his most important papal commissions was the Raphael Cartoons now in the Victoria and Albert Museum , a series of 10 cartoons , of which seven survive, for tapestries with scenes of the lives of Saint Paul and Saint Peter , for the Sistine Chapel.

The cartoons were sent to Brussels to be woven in the workshop of Pier van Aelst. It is possible that Raphael saw the finished series before his death—they were probably completed in Cecilia and the Sistine Madonna.

His last work, on which he was working up to his death, was a large Transfiguration , which together with Il Spasimo shows the direction his art was taking in his final years—more proto- Baroque than Mannerist.

Triumph of Galatea , , his only major mythology, for Chigi's villa Villa Farnesina. Il Spasimo , , brings a new degree of expressiveness to his art. Museo del Prado.

The Holy Family , Louvre. Transfiguration , , unfinished at his death. Pinacoteca Vaticana. Raphael painted several of his works on wood support Madonna of the Pinks but he also used canvas Sistine Madonna and he was known to employ drying oils such as linseed or walnut oils.

His palette was rich and he used almost all of the then available pigments such as ultramarine , lead-tin-yellow , carmine , vermilion , madder lake , verdigris and ochres.

In several of his paintings Ansidei Madonna he even employed the rare brazilwood lake, metallic powdered gold and even less known metallic powdered bismuth.

Vasari says that Raphael eventually had a workshop of fifty pupils and assistants, many of whom later became significant artists in their own right.

This was arguably the largest workshop team assembled under any single old master painter, and much higher than the norm. They included established masters from other parts of Italy, probably working with their own teams as sub-contractors, as well as pupils and journeymen.

We have very little evidence of the internal working arrangements of the workshop, apart from the works of art themselves, which are often very difficult to assign to a particular hand.

The most important figures were Giulio Romano , a young pupil from Rome only about twenty-one at Raphael's death , and Gianfrancesco Penni , already a Florentine master.

They were left many of Raphael's drawings and other possessions, and to some extent continued the workshop after Raphael's death.

Penni did not achieve a personal reputation equal to Giulio's, as after Raphael's death he became Giulio's less-than-equal collaborator in turn for much of his subsequent career.

Perino del Vaga , already a master, and Polidoro da Caravaggio , who was supposedly promoted from a labourer carrying building materials on the site, also became notable painters in their own right.

Polidoro's partner, Maturino da Firenze , has, like Penni, been overshadowed in subsequent reputation by his partner.

Giovanni da Udine had a more independent status, and was responsible for the decorative stucco work and grotesques surrounding the main frescoes.

Vasari emphasises that Raphael ran a very harmonious and efficient workshop, and had extraordinary skill in smoothing over troubles and arguments with both patrons and his assistants—a contrast with the stormy pattern of Michelangelo's relationships with both.

Many of his portraits, if in good condition, show his brilliance in the detailed handling of paint right up to the end of his life.

It has been claimed the Flemish Bernard van Orley worked for Raphael for a time, and Luca Penni , brother of Gianfrancesco and later a member of the First School of Fontainebleau , may have been a member of the team.

Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga , c. Portrait of Pope Julius II , c. Portrait of Bindo Altoviti , c. Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione , c.

Raphael was one of the finest draftsmen in the history of Western art, and used drawings extensively to plan his compositions.

According to a near-contemporary, when beginning to plan a composition, he would lay out a large number of stock drawings of his on the floor, and begin to draw "rapidly", borrowing figures from here and there.

This is how Raphael himself, who was so rich in inventiveness, used to work, always coming up with four or six ways to show a narrative, each one different from the rest, and all of them full of grace and well done.

When a final composition was achieved, scaled-up full-size cartoons were often made, which were then pricked with a pin and "pounced" with a bag of soot to leave dotted lines on the surface as a guide.

He also made unusually extensive use, on both paper and plaster, of a "blind stylus", scratching lines which leave only an indentation, but no mark.

These can be seen on the wall in The School of Athens , and in the originals of many drawings. In later works painted by the workshop, the drawings are often painfully more attractive than the paintings.

They lack the freedom and energy of some of Leonardo's and Michelangelo's sketches, but are nearly always aesthetically very satisfying.

He was one of the last artists to use metalpoint literally a sharp pointed piece of silver or another metal extensively, although he also made superb use of the freer medium of red or black chalk.

Study for soldiers in this Resurrection of Christ , ca Red chalk study for the Villa Farnesina Three Graces. Sheet with study for the Alba Madonna and other sketches.

Raphael made no prints himself, but entered into a collaboration with Marcantonio Raimondi to produce engravings to Raphael's designs, which created many of the most famous Italian prints of the century, and was important in the rise of the reproductive print.

His interest was unusual in such a major artist; from his contemporaries it was only shared by Titian , who had worked much less successfully with Raimondi.

Raphael made preparatory drawings, many of which survive, for Raimondi to translate into engraving. The most famous original prints to result from the collaboration were Lucretia , the Judgement of Paris and The Massacre of the Innocents of which two virtually identical versions were engraved.

Among prints of the paintings The Parnassus with considerable differences [83] and Galatea were also especially well known. Outside Italy, reproductive prints by Raimondi and others were the main way that Raphael's art was experienced until the twentieth century.

Baviero Carocci , called "Il Baviera" by Vasari, an assistant who Raphael evidently trusted with his money, [84] ended up in control of most of the copper plates after Raphael's death, and had a successful career in the new occupation of a publisher of prints.

Drawing for a Sibyl in the Chigi Chapel. Judgement of Paris , still influencing Manet , who used the seated group in his most famous work.

Galatea, engraving after the fresco in the Villa Farnesina. From until his death, Raphael lived in the Palazzo Caprini , lying at the corner between piazza Scossacavalli and via Alessandrina in the Borgo , in rather grand style in a palace designed by Bramante.

Vasari claims that he had toyed with the ambition of becoming a cardinal, perhaps after some encouragement from Leo, which also may account for his delaying his marriage.

Raphael died on Good Friday April 6, , which was possibly his 37th birthday. He dictated his will, in which he left sufficient funds for his mistress's care, entrusted to his loyal servant Baviera, and left most of his studio contents to Giulio Romano and Penni.

At his request, Raphael was buried in the Pantheon. Raphael's funeral was extremely grand, attended by large crowds.

According to a journal by Paris de Grassis , [g] four cardinals dressed in purple carried his body, the hand of which was kissed by the Pope.

Self-portrait, Raphael in the background, from The School of Athens. Possible self-portrait by Raphael. Possible Self-portrait with a friend , c.

Raphael was highly admired by his contemporaries, although his influence on artistic style in his own century was less than that of Michelangelo.

Mannerism , beginning at the time of his death, and later the Baroque , took art "in a direction totally opposed" to Raphael's qualities; [93] "with Raphael's death, classic art — the High Renaissance — subsided", as Walter Friedländer put it.

Those, like Dolce and Aretino , who held this view were usually the survivors of Renaissance Humanism , unable to follow Michelangelo as he moved on into Mannerism.

Vasari himself, despite his hero remaining Michelangelo, came to see his influence as harmful in some ways, and added passages to the second edition of the Lives expressing similar views.

Raphael's compositions were always admired and studied, and became the cornerstone of the training of the Academies of art.

His period of greatest influence was from the late 17th to late 19th centuries, when his perfect decorum and balance were greatly admired. He was seen as the best model for the history painting , regarded as the highest in the hierarchy of genres.

Sir Joshua Reynolds in his Discourses praised his "simple, grave, and majestic dignity" and said he "stands in general foremost of the first [i. He did not possess so many excellences as Raffaelle, but those he had were of the highest kind The excellency of this extraordinary man lay in the propriety, beauty, and majesty of his characters, his judicious contrivance of his composition, correctness of drawing, purity of taste, and the skilful accommodation of other men's conceptions to his own purpose.

Nobody excelled him in that judgment, with which he united to his own observations on nature the energy of Michael Angelo, and the beauty and simplicity of the antique.

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En quarts de finale, il affronte la valeur montante Grigor Dimitrov. En demi-finale, Nadal prend la mesure de Jo-Wilfried Tsonga , 3.

Nadal continue sa route au tournoi de Barcelone. Il aborde les Internationaux de France de tennis comme grand favori.

Il remporte le premier set Finalement, l'Espagnol s'adjuge un nouveau titre en disposant d'Isner 8 , 3 [ 86 ].

Il n'avait plus atteint cette place depuis le 3 juillet C'est Novak Djokovic qui remporte le match , et ainsi le tournoi.

Il est cependant battu en demi-finale par un excellent David Ferrer , Il termine donc premier de son groupe. Rafael Nadal commence sa saison en demi-finale du tournoi d'exhibition d'Abu Dhabi , tournoi non officiel.

Il y affronte David Ferrer contre lequel il s'incline , L'Espagnol n'abdique pas cependant, par respect pour son adversaire et le public, mais finit par s'incliner , , , [ 89 ].

Il affronte en finale Alexandr Dolgopolov , tombeur de David Ferrer , qu'il bat, dans la douleur, , [ 91 ]. Il participe ensuite au tournoi de Barcelone.

Mais le Japonais, qui souffre de plus en plus du dos, accuse le coup physiquement. Nadal gagne donc sans convaincre , , et conserve ainsi son titre chez lui, en Espagne [ 96 ].

Il remporte son 27 e Masters Il poursuit par le tournoi de Rome , qui doit le rassurer avant Roland-Garros. Il gagne finalement , , [ 97 ].

Il rencontre Murray en demi-finale qui voit l'Espagnol l'emporter sur un score sans appel , , en seulement 1 h 40 [ ]. Il y affronte Andy Murray contre lequel il s'incline , Il commence avec l' Open de Rio de Janeiro.

Il retrouve en finale le quintuple tenant du titre Novak Djokovic qui le surclasse , Il y atteint les demi-finales en battant notamment Milos Raonic , 9 e mondial et Stanislas Wawrinka , 4 e mondial en deux manches.

Il retrouve ensuite Jo-Wilfried Tsonga qui le bat en 3 sets , , Rafael Nadal commence sa saison en demi-finale du tournoi d'exhibition d' Abu Dhabi , tournoi non officiel.

Il y affronte David Ferrer contre lequel il l'emporte en trois sets , 6 4 -7, Ce match est encourageant et rassurant pour la suite de la saison de l'Espagnol [ ].

Aux Jeux olympiques de Rio , il fait son retour et s'aligne en simple et en double. Il se qualifie pour les quarts de finale en battant Federico Delbonis , Andreas Seppi et Gilles Simon en deux manches.

Rafael Nadal commence sa saison au tournoi exhibition d' Abu Dhabi. En demi-finale, il affronte le Canadien Milos Raonic et remporte le match , , Pour son premier match officiel, il bat Alexandr Dolgopolov , Cette fois, c'est le Canadien qui l'emporte en trois sets , , Au bout d'un match marathon de plus de 4 heures de jeu, Nadal en sort vainqueur , , 6 5 -7, , [ ].

Lors de cette demi-finale, il affronte le Bulgare Grigor Dimitrov 15 e mondial. Il rencontre ensuite en quart de finale le Japonais Yoshihito Nishioka , et gagne en 2 sets 3 , Il l'emporte en surclassant le Suisse , , en 2 h 05 [ ].

En demi-finale, il domine le Russe Karen Khachanov 3 , pour se qualifier en finale. Le Majorquin domine ensuite facilement le Canadien Vasek Pospisil , , Il dispute son premier match contre le Sud-Africain Kevin Anderson en demi-finale, contre qui il perd en 3 sets , , Le Majorquin l'emporte facilement en 1 h 46 , , Le Serbe l'emporte donc en 3 petits sets , , et 2 h Il retrouve le Russe Karen Khachanov , qu'il bat en deux tie-breaks , et 2 h 16, mais contre qui il se blesse au genou droit.

Mais il s'incline de nouveau en demi-finale, vaincu en deux manches par un exceptionnel Dominic Thiem , [ ]. Il participe ensuite au Masters de Paris-Bercy.

En finale, il remporte le point du titre face au Canada en battant Denis Shapovalov , 7. En finale, il s'incline en simple contre Novak Djokovic , et l'Espagne finit par perdre contre la Serbie Il est un des meilleurs relanceurs du circuit [ ].

Le coup droit de Rafael Nadal est son meilleur coup [ ]. En , lors de la finale de Wimbledon, il ne monte que 28 fois au filet.

Les surfaces en dur sont plus agressives pour le corps. Il retourne la situation, efface la balle de match et remonte ses deux breaks de retard avant de remporter le match au tie-break.

Ainsi que de la Coupe Davis. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Menu de navigation Espaces de noms Article Discussion. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Nadal et Parera.

Nadal Parera est un nom espagnol. Poules 4 e du groupe B Forfait. Finale Roger Federer Poules. Poules 3 e du groupe B Finale.

Finale Novak Djokovic Forfait. Poules ab. David Goffin Forfait. Open de Doha. Doha Qatar. Tournoi d'Auckland. Auckland Australie. Open d'Australie.

Melbourne Australie. Grand Chelem. Lleyton Hewitt. Tournoi de Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires Argentine. Open d'Acapulco. Acapulco Mexique. Masters de Miami.

Roger Federer. Open de Valence. Valence Espagne. Igor Andreev. Masters de Monte-Carlo. Monte-Carlo Monaco. Guillermo Coria. Open de Barcelone.

Barcelone Espagne. Juan Carlos Ferrero. Masters de Rome. Rome Italie. Paris France. Mariano Puerta. Tournoi de Halle. Halle Allemagne.

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Joachim Johansson. Masters Cup. Shanghai Chine. Open de Chennai. Chennai Inde. Xavier Malisse. Tournoi de Sydney. Julius had made changes to the street plan of Rome, creating several new thoroughfares, and he wanted them filled with splendid palaces.

The main designs for the Villa Farnesina were not by Raphael, but he did design, and decorate with mosaics, the Chigi Chapel for the same patron, Agostino Chigi , the Papal Treasurer.

Another building, for Pope Leo's doctor, the Palazzo Jacopo da Brescia , was moved in the s but survives; this was designed to complement a palace on the same street by Bramante, where Raphael himself lived for a time.

He produced a design from which the final construction plans were completed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Even incomplete, it was the most sophisticated villa design yet seen in Italy, and greatly influenced the later development of the genre; it appears to be the only modern building in Rome of which Palladio made a measured drawing.

Only some floor-plans remain for a large palace planned for himself on the new via Giulia in the rione of Regola , for which he was accumulating the land in his last years.

It was on an irregular island block near the river Tiber. It is preserved at the Library in Munich with handwritten margin notes by Raphael.

The pope intended to continue to re-use ancient masonry in the building of St Peter's, also wanting to ensure that all ancient inscriptions were recorded, and sculpture preserved, before allowing the stones to be reused.

Peter's Square for 90, ducats. The Vatican projects took most of his time, although he painted several portraits, including those of his two main patrons, the popes Julius II and his successor Leo X , the former considered one of his finest.

Other portraits were of his own friends, like Castiglione, or the immediate Papal circle. Other rulers pressed for work, and King Francis I of France was sent two paintings as diplomatic gifts from the Pope.

He also designed some of the decoration for the Villa Madama, the work in both villas being executed by his workshop.

One of his most important papal commissions was the Raphael Cartoons now in the Victoria and Albert Museum , a series of 10 cartoons , of which seven survive, for tapestries with scenes of the lives of Saint Paul and Saint Peter , for the Sistine Chapel.

The cartoons were sent to Brussels to be woven in the workshop of Pier van Aelst. It is possible that Raphael saw the finished series before his death—they were probably completed in Cecilia and the Sistine Madonna.

His last work, on which he was working up to his death, was a large Transfiguration , which together with Il Spasimo shows the direction his art was taking in his final years—more proto- Baroque than Mannerist.

Triumph of Galatea , , his only major mythology, for Chigi's villa Villa Farnesina. Il Spasimo , , brings a new degree of expressiveness to his art.

Museo del Prado. The Holy Family , Louvre. Transfiguration , , unfinished at his death. Pinacoteca Vaticana.

Raphael painted several of his works on wood support Madonna of the Pinks but he also used canvas Sistine Madonna and he was known to employ drying oils such as linseed or walnut oils.

His palette was rich and he used almost all of the then available pigments such as ultramarine , lead-tin-yellow , carmine , vermilion , madder lake , verdigris and ochres.

In several of his paintings Ansidei Madonna he even employed the rare brazilwood lake, metallic powdered gold and even less known metallic powdered bismuth.

Vasari says that Raphael eventually had a workshop of fifty pupils and assistants, many of whom later became significant artists in their own right.

This was arguably the largest workshop team assembled under any single old master painter, and much higher than the norm.

They included established masters from other parts of Italy, probably working with their own teams as sub-contractors, as well as pupils and journeymen.

We have very little evidence of the internal working arrangements of the workshop, apart from the works of art themselves, which are often very difficult to assign to a particular hand.

The most important figures were Giulio Romano , a young pupil from Rome only about twenty-one at Raphael's death , and Gianfrancesco Penni , already a Florentine master.

They were left many of Raphael's drawings and other possessions, and to some extent continued the workshop after Raphael's death.

Penni did not achieve a personal reputation equal to Giulio's, as after Raphael's death he became Giulio's less-than-equal collaborator in turn for much of his subsequent career.

Perino del Vaga , already a master, and Polidoro da Caravaggio , who was supposedly promoted from a labourer carrying building materials on the site, also became notable painters in their own right.

Polidoro's partner, Maturino da Firenze , has, like Penni, been overshadowed in subsequent reputation by his partner.

Giovanni da Udine had a more independent status, and was responsible for the decorative stucco work and grotesques surrounding the main frescoes.

Vasari emphasises that Raphael ran a very harmonious and efficient workshop, and had extraordinary skill in smoothing over troubles and arguments with both patrons and his assistants—a contrast with the stormy pattern of Michelangelo's relationships with both.

Many of his portraits, if in good condition, show his brilliance in the detailed handling of paint right up to the end of his life. It has been claimed the Flemish Bernard van Orley worked for Raphael for a time, and Luca Penni , brother of Gianfrancesco and later a member of the First School of Fontainebleau , may have been a member of the team.

Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga , c. Portrait of Pope Julius II , c. Portrait of Bindo Altoviti , c. Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione , c.

Raphael was one of the finest draftsmen in the history of Western art, and used drawings extensively to plan his compositions. According to a near-contemporary, when beginning to plan a composition, he would lay out a large number of stock drawings of his on the floor, and begin to draw "rapidly", borrowing figures from here and there.

This is how Raphael himself, who was so rich in inventiveness, used to work, always coming up with four or six ways to show a narrative, each one different from the rest, and all of them full of grace and well done.

When a final composition was achieved, scaled-up full-size cartoons were often made, which were then pricked with a pin and "pounced" with a bag of soot to leave dotted lines on the surface as a guide.

He also made unusually extensive use, on both paper and plaster, of a "blind stylus", scratching lines which leave only an indentation, but no mark.

These can be seen on the wall in The School of Athens , and in the originals of many drawings. In later works painted by the workshop, the drawings are often painfully more attractive than the paintings.

They lack the freedom and energy of some of Leonardo's and Michelangelo's sketches, but are nearly always aesthetically very satisfying.

He was one of the last artists to use metalpoint literally a sharp pointed piece of silver or another metal extensively, although he also made superb use of the freer medium of red or black chalk.

Study for soldiers in this Resurrection of Christ , ca Red chalk study for the Villa Farnesina Three Graces.

Sheet with study for the Alba Madonna and other sketches. Raphael made no prints himself, but entered into a collaboration with Marcantonio Raimondi to produce engravings to Raphael's designs, which created many of the most famous Italian prints of the century, and was important in the rise of the reproductive print.

His interest was unusual in such a major artist; from his contemporaries it was only shared by Titian , who had worked much less successfully with Raimondi.

Raphael made preparatory drawings, many of which survive, for Raimondi to translate into engraving. The most famous original prints to result from the collaboration were Lucretia , the Judgement of Paris and The Massacre of the Innocents of which two virtually identical versions were engraved.

Among prints of the paintings The Parnassus with considerable differences [83] and Galatea were also especially well known. Outside Italy, reproductive prints by Raimondi and others were the main way that Raphael's art was experienced until the twentieth century.

Baviero Carocci , called "Il Baviera" by Vasari, an assistant who Raphael evidently trusted with his money, [84] ended up in control of most of the copper plates after Raphael's death, and had a successful career in the new occupation of a publisher of prints.

Drawing for a Sibyl in the Chigi Chapel. Judgement of Paris , still influencing Manet , who used the seated group in his most famous work.

Galatea, engraving after the fresco in the Villa Farnesina. From until his death, Raphael lived in the Palazzo Caprini , lying at the corner between piazza Scossacavalli and via Alessandrina in the Borgo , in rather grand style in a palace designed by Bramante.

Vasari claims that he had toyed with the ambition of becoming a cardinal, perhaps after some encouragement from Leo, which also may account for his delaying his marriage.

Raphael died on Good Friday April 6, , which was possibly his 37th birthday. He dictated his will, in which he left sufficient funds for his mistress's care, entrusted to his loyal servant Baviera, and left most of his studio contents to Giulio Romano and Penni.

At his request, Raphael was buried in the Pantheon. Raphael's funeral was extremely grand, attended by large crowds. According to a journal by Paris de Grassis , [g] four cardinals dressed in purple carried his body, the hand of which was kissed by the Pope.

Self-portrait, Raphael in the background, from The School of Athens. Possible self-portrait by Raphael. Possible Self-portrait with a friend , c. Raphael was highly admired by his contemporaries, although his influence on artistic style in his own century was less than that of Michelangelo.

Mannerism , beginning at the time of his death, and later the Baroque , took art "in a direction totally opposed" to Raphael's qualities; [93] "with Raphael's death, classic art — the High Renaissance — subsided", as Walter Friedländer put it.

Those, like Dolce and Aretino , who held this view were usually the survivors of Renaissance Humanism , unable to follow Michelangelo as he moved on into Mannerism.

Vasari himself, despite his hero remaining Michelangelo, came to see his influence as harmful in some ways, and added passages to the second edition of the Lives expressing similar views.

Raphael's compositions were always admired and studied, and became the cornerstone of the training of the Academies of art.

His period of greatest influence was from the late 17th to late 19th centuries, when his perfect decorum and balance were greatly admired.

He was seen as the best model for the history painting , regarded as the highest in the hierarchy of genres.

Sir Joshua Reynolds in his Discourses praised his "simple, grave, and majestic dignity" and said he "stands in general foremost of the first [i. He did not possess so many excellences as Raffaelle, but those he had were of the highest kind The excellency of this extraordinary man lay in the propriety, beauty, and majesty of his characters, his judicious contrivance of his composition, correctness of drawing, purity of taste, and the skilful accommodation of other men's conceptions to his own purpose.

Nobody excelled him in that judgment, with which he united to his own observations on nature the energy of Michael Angelo, and the beauty and simplicity of the antique.

To the question, therefore, which ought to hold the first rank, Raffaelle or Michael Angelo, it must be answered, that if it is to be given to him who possessed a greater combination of the higher qualities of the art than any other man, there is no doubt but Raffaelle is the first.

But if, according to Longinus , the sublime, being the highest excellence that human composition can attain to, abundantly compensates the absence of every other beauty, and atones for all other deficiencies, then Michael Angelo demands the preference.

Reynolds was less enthusiastic about Raphael's panel paintings, but the slight sentimentality of these made them enormously popular in the 19th century: "We have been familiar with them from childhood onwards, through a far greater mass of reproductions than any other artist in the world has ever had In Germany, Raphael had an immense influence on religious art of the Nazarene movement and Düsseldorf school of painting in the 19th century.

In contrast, in England the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood explicitly reacted against his influence and that of his admirers such as Joshua Reynolds , seeking to return to styles that pre-dated what they saw as his baneful influence.

According to a critic whose ideas greatly influenced them, John Ruskin :. The doom of the arts of Europe went forth from that chamber [the Stanza della Segnatura], and it was brought about in great part by the very excellencies of the man who had thus marked the commencement of decline.

The perfection of execution and the beauty of feature which were attained in his works, and in those of his great contemporaries, rendered finish of execution and beauty of form the chief objects of all artists; and thenceforward execution was looked for rather than thought, and beauty rather than veracity.

And as I told you, these are the two secondary causes of the decline of art; the first being the loss of moral purpose. Pray note them clearly.

By , Raphael's popularity was surpassed by Michelangelo and Leonardo, perhaps as a reaction against the etiolated Raphaelism of 19th-century academic artists such as Bouguereau.

In contrast to volume upon volume that reproduce yet again detailed photographs of the Sistine Ceiling or Leonardo's drawings, the literature on Raphael, particularly in English, is limited to only a few books".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Italian Renaissance painter and architect. For other uses, see Raphael disambiguation.

Presumed portrait of Raphael [1]. Urbino , Duchy of Urbino. Rome , Papal States. Painting Architecture. Raphael Rooms Sistine Madonna Transfiguration.

Both birth dates cannot be true. After Leonardo left for Milan, Santi chose Perugino from one of two available artists to teach his son. Art historian John Shearman addressed this apparent discrepancy: "The time of death can be calculated from the convention of counting from sundown, which Michaelis puts at 6.

The coincidence noted between the birth-date and death-date is usually thought in this case since it refers to the Friday and Saturday in Holy Week, the movable feast rather than the day of the month to fortify the argument that Raphael was also born on Good Friday, i.

But there is a notable ambiguity in Michiel's note, not often noticed: Morse

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